Social Changes and Language Use in the Families of Banat Swabians Between the Two World Wars

  • Aleksandar Krel Institute of Ethnography SASA, Belgrade
  • Marija Mandić Institute for Balkan Studies SASA
Keywords:
Danube Swabians, Banat Swabians, field research, language use, language ideology

Abstract

The paper investigates language ideology and language use in the families of Banat Swabians between the two world wars. It is argued that the linguistic practices of the Banat Swabians cannot be understood without insight into the historical context and the most important ideological nuclei of the Danube Swabians, as the ethnic group to which they belong. The analysis is therefore based on previous research on the Danube Swabians, primarily carried out by historians, anthropologists and linguists, and on contemporary field research carried out within the German Banat community. The paper shows that the Banat Swabians in the interwar period are characterized by the heterogeneity of language ideologies and practices, which depends on their family and social status, as well as on the changing socio-political circumstances in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Europe at that time. The language ideologies of the Banat Swabians, as shown in the paper, oscillated between national (standardizing) and local (vernacular). Language use was characterized by standard language culture and diglossia of Swabian (vernacular variety of German) and Hochdeutsch (literary, standardized variety). The social values attributed to local Swabian varieties in the school, in the local German press and within Swabian families also fluctuated between stigmatisation and admiration. As the Swabians inhabited areas where German was not the majority language, they praised and practiced multilingualism, especially in the public sphere. The language repertoire of all social strata included almost all the main languages of the Banat social environment – German, Hungarian, Serbian, Romanian, etc. Furthermore, we argue that the Banat Swabians perceived the entire area of the former Monarchy, and partly Germany, as interconnected cultural and social spaces. Transnational mobility was thus an integral part of their everyday and family life.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Alexander, Jeffrey. 2004. „Toward a Theory of Cultural Trauma“. In Cultural Trauma and Collective Identity, edited by Jeffrey Alexander, Ron Eyerman, Bernard Giesen, Neil Smelser and Piotr Sztompka, 1–31. University of California Press.
Bešlin, Branko. 2001. Vesnik tragedije. Nemačka štampa u Vojvodini 1933–1941. godine. Novi Sad, Sremski Karlovci: Platoneum.
Binder, Fridrih. 2003. „Promemorija“. U Jedan svet na Dunavu: razgovori i komentari, uredio Nenad Stefanović, 124–138. München: Donauschwäbische Kulturstiftung; Eggenfelden: Humanitäre Hilfe Donauschwaben; Beograd: Društvo za srpsko-nemačku saradnju.
Bradean-Ebinger, Nelu. 1997. Deutsch im Kontakt: als Minderheits-und als Mehrheitssprache
in Mitteleuropa; eine soziolinguistische Untersuchung zum Sprachgebrauch bei den Ungarndeutschen, Donauschwaben und Kärntner Slowenen. Wien: Edition Praesens.
Bugarski, Ranko. 1986. Jezik u društvu. Beograd: XX vek.
Eyerman, Ron. 2017. „Cultural Trauma: Emotion and Narration“. In The Oxford Handbook of Cultural Sociology, edited by Alexander, Jeffrey, Jacobs, Ronald and Smith, Philip. Oxford University Press.
Ferguson, Charles. 1959. „Diglossia“. Word 15: 325–340.
Grabarek, Józef. 2013. Zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache im 20. Jahrhundert. Peter Lang.
Gal, Susan. 1987. „Codeswitching and Consciousness in the European Periphery“. American Ethnologist 14 (4): 637–653.
Gal, Susan. 1993. „Diversity and contestation in Linguistic Ideologies: German Speakers in Hungary“. Language in Society 22 (3): 337–359.
Gal, Susan. 1995. „Cultural basis of language use among German speakers in Hungary“. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 111: 93–102.
Gal Susan. 2011. „Polyglot nationalism. Alternative perspectives on language in 19th century Hungary“. Langage et société 136 (2): 31–54.
Gal, Susan. 2015. „Imperial linguistics and polyglot nationalisms in Austria-Hungary: Hunfalvy, Gumplowicz and Schuchardt.“ Balkanistica 28: 151–173.
Gehl, Hans (Hg.). 1998. Sprachgebrauch – Sprachanpassung. Eine Untersuchung zum heutigen Gebrauch der deutschen Sprache in Westrumänien und zur sprachlichen Anpassung der Donauschwaben. Tübingen: Institut für donauschwäbische Geschichte und Landeskunde.
Greffner, Otto. 1996. Das Banat und die Banater Schwaben (Kurzgefaßte Geschichte einer deutschen Volksgruppe). Weil am Rhein.
Dammang, Andreas. 1931. Die Deutsche Landwirdschaft im Banat und Batschka. Novi Sad.
Dimitrijević, Duško. 2005. „Restitucija ’stečenih prava’ pripadnika nemačke manjine u bivšoj Jugoslaviji“. Теме. Časopis za društvene nauke 3: 393–414.
Dimić, Ljubodrag. 1997. Kulturna politika Kraljevine Jugoslavije 1918–1941 III. Politika i stvaralaštvo. Beograd: Stubovi kulture.
Ilić (Mandić), Marija. 2014. Discourse and Ethnic Identity: The Case Study of Serbs in Hungary. München, Berlin: Verlag Otto Sagner.
Irvine, Judith. 1989. „When Talk Isn’t Cheap: Language and Political Economy“. American Ethnologist 16: 348–267.
Janjetović, Zoran. 2000.„Duhovni profil vojvođanskih Švaba“. Tokovi istorije 1–2: 55–67.
Janjetović, Zoran. 2004. „Švabe u Vojvodini“. U Skrivene manjine na Balkanu, uredila Biljana Sikimić, 121–134. Beograd: Balkanološki institut SANU.
Janjetović, Zoran. 2005. Deca careva, pastorčad kraljeva. Nacionalne manjine u Jugoslaviji 1918–1941. Beograd: Institut za noviju istoriju.
Janjetović, Zoran. 2007. „Proterivanje nemačkog i mađarskog življa iz Vojvodine na kraju drugog svetskog rata.“ Hereticus. Časopis za preispitivanje prošlosti 4: 106–118. Dostupno na: http://www.komunikacija.org.rs/komunikacija/casopisi/Hereticus/V_1/06/download_ser_lat. Pristupljeno: 30.07.2020.
Kerswill, Paul. 2013. „Koineization“. In The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, edited by J.K. Chambers and Natalie Schilling, 519–536. Willey Blackwell.
Kiss, Attila, G. 2016. „Teaching the Romanian neighbors Hungarian: Language ideologies and the Debrecen Summer School“. Multilingua 35 (1): 31–55.
König, Walter. 1995. „Die Deutschen in Rumänien seit 1918“. In Die Deutschen in Ostmittel- und Südosteuropa. Geschichte – Wirtschaft – Recht – Sprache. I. Hgg. Gerhard Grimm und Krista Zach, 251–296. München: Verlag Südostdeutsches Kulturwerk.
Krel, Aleksandar. 2006. „Promene strategije etničkog identiteta Nemaca u Subotici u drugoj polovini 20. veka“. Glasnik etnografskog instituta SANU LIV: 319−331.
Krel, Aleksandar. 2008. „Uloga udruženja ’Gerhard’ u revitalizaciji etničkog identiteta somborskih Nemaca“. U Slike kulture nekad i sad, uredila Zorica Divac, 155−168. Beograd: Etnografski institut SANU.
Krel, Aleksandar. 2009. „Bili bismo i Kinezi, samo da nas ostave na miru: (re)konstrukcija etničkog identiteta Nemaca u Vojvodini“. Antropologija 9: 131−146.
Krel, Aleksandar. 2012. „Sprechen Sie Deutsch? German Language and Revitalization of Ethnic Identity of the Germans in Bačka“. Glasnik Etnografskog instituta SANU LX (2): 171–185.
Krel, Aleksandar. 2014. Mi smo Nemci. Etnički identitet pripadnika nemačke nacionalne manjine u Vojvodini na početku 21. veka. Beograd: Etnografski institut SANU.
Krel, Aleksandar i Marija Mandić. 2016a. „Legendarno doseljavanje u usmenoj predaji vojvođanskih Nemaca“. U Književna istorija 158. Temat „Usmena istorija II“, uredila Sonja Petrović: 249–265.
Krel, Aleksandar i Marija Mandić. 2016b. „Višejezičnost kao habitus: Diskurs banatskih Nemaca o periodu između dva svetska rata“. Etnoantropološki problemi 11 (2): 583–600.
Krel, Aleksandar i Marija Mandić. 2016c. „Diskurs o jezičkim praksama banatskih Nemaca: Savremena terenska istraživanja“. Antropologija 16 (1): 33–52.
Lebl, Arpad. 1962. „Socijalno-istorijski aspekti etničkog pluralizma u Vojvodini“. Etnološki pregled IV: 22–31.
Laihonen, Peteri. 2007. „Die Banater Schwaben und Ideologien über die Mehrsprachigkei“. Ungarn-Jahrbuch : Zeitschrift für interdisziplinäre Hungarologie 2005–2007 (28): 91–110.
Lökkös, János. 2000. Trianon számokban: az 1910. évi magyar népszámlalás anyanyelvi adatainak elemzése a történelmi Magyarországon. Budapest: Püski.
Marácz, László. 2012. „Multilingualism in the Transleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867–1918): Policy and practice“. Jezikoslovlje 13 (2): 269–298.
Mikeš, Melanija. 2001. Kada su granice samo tarabe: Istraživanja višejezičnosti u Vojvodini. Novi Sad: Jugoslovensko društvo za primenjenu lingvistiku, Futura publikacije.
Milleker, Felix. 1926. Die Besiedlung der Banater Militärgrenze. Bela Crkva.
Nećak-Lük, Albina. 1986. „Education in multicultural societies and its social implications“. Razprave in Gradivo 18: 309–313.
Pavlica, Branko. 2005. „Sudbina Nemaca u Srbiji“. Teme. Časopis za društvene nauke 3: 351−392.
Popis 2011. Popis stanovništva, domaćinstava i stanova u Republici Srbiji. Veroispovest, maternji jezik i nacionalna pripadnost. Podaci po opštinama i gradovima. Beograd: Republički zavod za statistiku, 2013.
Prauser, Steffen and Arfon Rees. 2004. „Introduction“. In The Expulsion of the ‘German’ Communities from Eastern Europe at the End of the Second World War, edited by Steffen rauser and Arfon Rees, 1–9. Working Paper HEC No. 2004/1. Florence: European University Institute.
Prokopovych, Markian, Carl Bethke and Tamara Scheer. eds. 2019. Language Diversity in the Late Habsburg Empire. Leiden, Boston: Brill.
Rill Helena i Marijana Stojčić. 2017. Na tragu Podunavskih Nemaca u Vojvodini. Beograd, Sarajevo: Centar za nenasilnu akciju.
Schjerve-Rindler Rosita and Eva Vetter. 2007. „Linguistic diversity in Habsburg Austria as a model for modern European Language Policy“. In Receptive multilingualism: Linguistic analyses, language policies and didactic concepts, edited by Jan ten Thije and Ludger Zeevaert, 49–70. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Tsitsipis, Lukas. 1998. A Linguistic Anthropology of Praxis and Language Shift: Arvanítika (Albanian) and Greek in Contact. Oxford University Press.
Wolf, Michaela. 2015. The Habsburg Monarchy’s Many-Languaged Soul. Translating and Interpreting 1848-1918. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Woolard, Kathryn and Bambi Schieffelin. 1994. „Language ideology“. Annual Review of Anthropology 23: 55–82.
Van der Plank, Pieter. 2012. „Effects of Habsburg educational policies measured by census statistics“. Jezikoslovlje 13 (2): 373–393.
Published
2020-12-16
How to Cite
Krel, Aleksandar, and Marija Mandić. 2020. “Social Changes and Language Use in the Families of Banat Swabians Between the Two World Wars”. Issues in Ethnology and Anthropology 15 (4), 1187–1209. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.21301/eap.v15i4.10.
Section
Other Humanities and Social Sciences