Theories of The Origin of The Septuagint

  • Rodoljub Kubat Faculty of Orthodox Theology, University of Belgrade
Keywords:
The Septuagint, translation, text, Ur-text, Targums, law, Alexandria, Judaea, synagogue

Abstract

In this paper the author presents and critically assesses scholarly theories tackling the issue of the Septuagint's origin. The most prominent theories shape the course of research into the Septuagint's origin. The basic questions which these theories aspire to answer are: the wayof emergence of the translation, the reason for, and the origin of the translation, and the place of its origin. There are two basic theories dealing with the way of emergence of the translation: these are the Urtext theory and the Targum theory. The first one still represents the basis of textual criticism methodology. Other theories predominantly tackle the question of what led to the translation in the first place. Two most dominant theories in this respect are the theory of liturgical use and the theory of codification. The former is more widely spread and has its different variations. The third question focuses on the location of the translation. Historical sources and the majority of scholars claim that the translation originated in Alexandria. One of the opposing theories claims the Judaean origin of the Septuagint. There is a significant number of opinions which fit somewhere in between the two. At the very end of the paper two research principles (criteria) have been more thoroughly investigated and presented. The first - internal criticism is based on the analysis of the translation itself, while the second deals with the research of external sources which can shed additional light on the topic.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Hieronymus. Praefatio in Paralipomenon. PL 28.
Bickerman, Elias. 1959. „The Septuagint as a Translation“. Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research No. 28, 1–39.
Bickerman, Elias. 1976. Studies in Jewish and Christian History I. Leiden: Brill.
Boyd-Taylor, Cameron. 1998. “A Place in the Sun: The Interpretative Significance of LXX-Psalm 18: 5c”. Bulletin of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies, 31.
de Lagarde, Paul Anton. 1863. Anmerkungen zur griechischen Übersetzung der Proverbien. Leipzig: F.A.Brockhaus.
de Lagarde, Paul Anton. 1883. Librorum Veteris Testamenti canonicorum pars prior graece. Göttingen.
Dines, Jennifer. 2004. The Septuaginta. London/New York: T& T Clark.
Dorival, Gilles. 2010. “New light about the origin of the Septuagint?” In Die Septuaginta – Texte, Theologien, Einflüsse, 2. Internationale Fachtagung von Septuaginta Deutsch (LXX. D), Wuppertal: 23–27.7.2008, WUNT 252. Edited by Kraus, W. / Karrer M. in collaboration with M. Meiser, 36–47. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Gaster, Moses. 1925. The Samaritans: Their History, Doctrines and Literature. London: Oxford University Press.
Greatz, Heinrich. 1891. “The Genesis of the So-colled LXX”. Jewich Quarterly Review 3, 150–156.
Hanhart, Robert. 1972. “Zum Wesen der makedonisch-hellenistischen Zeit Israels”. Wort, Lied and Gottesspruch II. Würzburg: Echter .
Harl, Marguerite. 1986. La Bible d'Alexandrie: 1. La Genèse. Paris: Editions de Cerf.
Jellicoe, Sidney. 1968. Septuagint and Modern Study. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jobes, Karen and Moisés Silva. 2000. Invitation to the Septuagint. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic.
Joosten, Jan.(2006. “Le millieu produktuer du Pentateuque grec”. Revues des Etudes Juives No. 165, 349–361.
Kahle, Paul. 1962. Die Kairoer Genisa: Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des hebräischen Bibeltextes und seiner Übersetzungen. Berlin: Academic-Verlag.
Kahle, Paul. 1959. The Cairo Geniza. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Kahle, Paul. 1957. “Problems of the Septuagint”. In Studia Patristica I, edited by K. Aland. Berlin: Academic-Verlag.
Katz, Peter. 1949. “Das Problem des Urtextes der Septuaginta”. Theologische Zeitschrift No. 5, 1–24.
Marcos, Natalio Fernandez. 1994a. Scribes and Translators: Septuagint and Old Latin in the Books of Kings. Leiden: E.J.Brill.
Marcos, Natalio Fernandez. 1994b. “The Septuagint Reading of the Book of Job”. In The Book of Job, edited by W. A. M. Beuken. Leuven: Leuven University Press.
Marcos, Natalio Fernandez. 2000. The Septuagint in Context: Introduction to the Greek Versions of the Bible. Leiden: Brill.
Mélèze-Modrzejewski, Joseph. 2001. “The Septuagint as Nomos: How the Torah Became a ‘Civic Law’ for the Jews of Egypt”. In Critical Studies in Ancient Law, Comparative Law and Legal History, edited by Cairns, J.W. and O.F. Robinson. Oxford: Bloomsbury Piblishing.
Orlinsky, Harry. 1989. “The Septuagint and its Hebrew Text”. In The Cambridge History of Judaism, edited by Davies, W.D, and Louis Finkelstein. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Peters, Melvin. 1992. “Septuagint”. ABD No. 5, 1093–1104.
Rösel, Martin. 1998. “The Text-Critical Value of Septuagint-Genesis”. Bulletin of the International Organization
for Septuagint and Cognate Studies No. 31, 62–70.
Rost, Leonhard. 1970. “Vermutungen über den Anlass zur griechischen Übersetzung der Tora”. In Wort, Gebot, Glaube: Beiträge zur Theologie des Alten Testaments, H. J. Stoebe / FS W. Eichrodt / J. J. Stamm / E. Jenni (Hrsg.), 39–44. [Abhandlungen zur Theologie des Alten und Neuen Testaments 59] Zürich: Zwingli Verlag.
Schaper, Joachim. 1995. Eschatology in the Greek Psalter. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Seeligmann, Isac Leo. 1948. The Septuagint Version of Isaiah: A Discussion of its Problems. Leiden: E.J.Brill.
Sperber, Alexander (1929). Das Alphabet der Septuaginta-Vorlage, Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, 32, 533–540.
Stricker, Bruno. 1956. Der Brief von Aristeas. Amsterdam: Noord-Holland.
Thackeray, Henry St. John. 1923. The Septuagint and Jewish Worship. London: Wipf & Stock Publishers.
Veltri, Giuseppe. 1994. Eine Torah für den König Talmai: Untersuchungen zum Übersetzungsverständnis in der jüdisch-hellenistischen und rabbinistischen Literatur. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Wutz, Frantz Xaver. 1926. Die Transkriptionen von der LXX bis zu Hieronymus. 42. Gießen: Töpelmann.
Ziegler, Joseph. 1934. “Untersuchungen zur LXX des Buches Isaias”. Alttestamentliche Abhandlungen 12, 3. Münster.
Published
2021-04-18
How to Cite
Kubat, Rodoljub. 2021. “Theories of The Origin of The Septuagint”. Issues in Ethnology and Anthropology 16 (1), 271–281. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.21301/eap.v16i1.11.
Section
Other Humanities and Social Sciences