Intravenous Drug Use in Belgrade as a Syndemic Environment

  • Bojan Žikić Department of Ethnology and Anthropology Faculty of Philosophy University of Belgrade
Keywords:
syndemic, intravenous drug use, HCV, HIV, Belgrade, anthropology

Abstract

Singer’s concept of syndemic, which signifies the combined presence of two or more diseases within a population, where these diseases represent the consequences of the way of life or living conditions of the population in question, is applied to intravenous drug use in Belgrade. The diseases which are taken into account are HIV/AIDS, HCV, pulmonary diseases and sexually transmitted diseases. It is shown that the circumstances which are inherent to the milieu of intravenous drug use, and which otherwise influence its formation, also influence the development of syndemics within it, or rather its establishing as a factor of the syndemic, the major epidemiological basis of which is constituted by HCV.

References

Baer, Hans A, Merrill Singer, and Ida Susser. 2003. Medical anthropology and the world system. Westport CT: Greenwood.
Baroš, Slađana, Bojan Žikić, 2010. Kontekstualni faktori faktori koji utiču na nekorišćenje zdravstvenih usluga infektivnih klinika – odelјenja za HIV/AIDS među osobama koje žive sa HIV/AIDS-om (PLHIV). U Istraživanja među populacijama pod povećanim rizikom od HIV-a i među osobama koje žive sa HIV-om. Ministarstvo zdravlјa, Jedinica za implementaciju projekta Ministarstva zdravlјa iz donacije Globalnog fonda za borbu protiv side, tuberkuloze i malarije (GFATM) i Institut za javno zdravlјe Srbije „Dr Milan Jovanović Batut”, Nacionalna kancelarija za HIV/AIDS, Beograd. 359-381.
Brennan, Julia, Lisa M. Kuhns, Amy K. Johnson, Marvin Beizer, Erin C. Wiison, Robert Garofalo and the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions. 2012. Syndemic Theory and HIV-Related Risk Among Young Transgender Women: The Role of Multiple, Co-Occurring Health Problems and Social Marginalization. American Journal of Public Health 102 (9): 1751-1757.
Buchanan, David, Susan Shaw, Amy Ford, Merrill Singer. 2003. Empirical science meets moral panic: an analysis of the politics of needle exchange. Journal of Public Health Policy 24 (3/4): 427–444.
Bulled, Nicola, Merrill Singer. 2009. Syringe-Mediated Syndemics. AIDS Behavior (7 pages, DOI 10.1007/s10461-009-9631-1)
Burke, Stacie D. A. 2011. Tuberculosis: Past and Present. Reviews in Anthropology 40: 27–52.
Cain, Kevin P, Nong Kanara, Kayla F. Laserson, Chhum Vannarith, Kim Sameourn, Keo Samnang, M. L. Qualls, Charles D. Wells, Jay K. Varma. 2007. The epidemiology of HIV-associated tuberculosis in rural Cambodia. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease: the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 11 (9): 1008-1013.
Carter, Marion W, Linda Hock-Long, Joan Marie Kraft, Dare Henry-Moss, Kendra Hatfield-Timajchy, and Merrill Singer. 2012. Strategies for Managing the Dual Risk of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy Among Puerto Rican and African American Young Adults. American Journal of Public Health 102 (3): 449-456.
Diedrich, Collin R, Joanne L Flynn. 2011. HIV-1/mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection immunology: how does HIV-1 exacerbate tuberculosis? Infection and immunity 79 (4): 1407-1417.
Draus, Paul. 2004 Consumed in the City: Observing Tuberculosis at Century’s End. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Farmer, Paul. 1999. Infections and inequalities: The modern plagues. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Easton, Delia. 2004. “The urban poor: Health issues”. In Encyclopedia of Medical Anthropology. Health and Illness in World Cultures Vol. 1: Topics, eds. Carol R. Ember and Melvin Ember, 207–213. New York/Boston/Dordrecht/London/Moscow: Kluwer/Plenum.
Freudenberg Nicholas, Marianne Fahs, Sandro Galea, and Andrew Greenberg. 2006. The Impact of New York City's 1975 Fiscal Crisis on the Tuberculosis, HIV, and Homicide Syndemic. American Journal of Public Health 96 (3): 424-434.
Geldmacher, Christof, Alimuddin Zumla, Michael Hoelscher. 2012. Interaction between HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis: HIV-1-induced CD4 T-cell depletion and the development of active tuberculosis. Current opinion in HIV and AIDS 7 (3): 268-275.
González-Guarda, Rosa M, Aubrey L. Florom-Smith and Tainayah Thomas. 2011. A Syndemic Model of Substance Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence, HIV Infection, and Mental Health Among Hispanics. Public Health Nursing 28 (4): 366–378.
Galea, Sandro, David D.Vlahov. 2002. Social determinants and the health of drug users: socioeconomic status, homelessness and incarceration. Public Health Reports 117 (3) Supplement 1: S115–S145.
Good, Byron. 1994. Medicine, Rationality, and Experience: An Anthropological Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Heimer, Robert, Scott Clair, Lauretta E. Grau, Ricky N. Bluthenthal, Patricia A. Marshall and Merrill Singer. 2001. Hepatitis-associated knowledge is low and risks are high among HIV-aware injection drug users in three US cities. Addiction 97: 1277-1287.
Herring, D. Ann, Lisa Sattenspiel. 2007. Social Contexts, Syndemics, and Infectious Disease in Northern Aboriginal Populations. American Journal of Human Biology 19 (2): 190–202.
Ho, David. 1996. The Influence of Coinfections on HIV Transmission and Disease Progression. The AIDS Reader 6 (4): 114-116.
Jovanović, Tanja. 2010. Seroprevalentna komponenta projekta – među injektirajućim korisnicima droge (IKD), osobama koje se bave seksualnim radom (SR), muškarcima koji imaju seksualne odnose sa muškarcima (MSM) i mladima romske etničke pripadnosti. U Istraživanja među populacijama pod povećanim rizikom od HIV-a i među osobama koje žive sa HIV-om. Ministarstvo zdravlјa, Jedinica za implementaciju projekta Ministarstva zdravlјa iz donacije Globalnog fonda za borbu protiv side, tuberkuloze i malarije (GFATM) i Institut za javno zdravlјe Srbije „Dr Milan Jovanović Batut”, Nacionalna kancelarija za HIV/AIDS, Beograd. 397-403.
Kwan, Candice K, Joel D. Ernst. 2011. HIV and tuberculosis: a deadly human syndemic. Clinical microbiology reviews 24 (2): 351-376.
Meyer, Jaimie P, Sandra A. Springer, and Frederick L. Altice. 2011. Substance Abuse, Violence, and HIV in Women: A Literature Review of the Syndemic. Journal of Women’s Health 20 (7): 991-1006.
Mickovski, Nataša. 2010. Procena prevalence HIV-a, hepatitisa C i sifilisa, rizičnog ponašanja i korišćenja usluga u populaciji injektirajućih korisnika droga u Beogradu i Nišu. U Istraživanja među populacijama pod povećanim rizikom od HIV-a i među osobama koje žive sa HIV-om. Ministarstvo zdravlјa, Jedinica za implementaciju projekta Ministarstva zdravlјa iz donacije Globalnog fonda za borbu protiv side, tuberkuloze i malarije (GFATM) i Institut za javno zdravlјe Srbije „Dr Milan Jovanović Batut”, Nacionalna kancelarija za HIV/AIDS, Beograd. 25-68.
Miller Cari L, Evan Wood, Patricia M. Spittal, Kathy Li, James C. Frankish, Paula Braitstein, Julio S. G. Montaner, Martin T. Schechter. 2004. The future face of co-infection: prevalence and incidence of HIV and hepatitis C virus co-infection among young injection drug users. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 36 (2): 743–749.
Milstein, Bobby. 2001. Introduction to the Syndemics Prevention Network. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Mustanski, Brian, Robert Garofalo, Amy Herrick, Geri Donenberg. 2007. Psychosocial Health Problems Increase Risk for HIV Among Urban Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: Preliminary Evidence of a Syndemic in Need of Attention. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 34 (1): 37–45.
Parsons, Jeffrey T, Christian Grov, and Sarit A. Golub. 2012. Sexual Compulsivity, Co-Occurring Psychosocial Health Problems, and HIV Risk Among Gay and Bisexual Men: Further Evidence of a Syndemic. American Journal of Public Health 102 (1): 156-162.
Rhodes, Tim. Larissa Mikhailova, Anya Sarang, Catherine M. Lowndes, Andrey Rylkov, Mikhail Khutorskoy, Adrian Renton. 2003. Situational factors influencing drug injecting, risk reduction and syringe exchange in Togliatti City, Russian Federation: a qualitative studyof micro risk environment. Social Science & Medicine 57: 39–54.
Rhodes, Tim, Bojan Žikić, Ana Prodanović, Elena Kuneski , Sarah Bernays. 2008a. Hygiene and uncertainty in qualitative accounts of hepatitis C transmission among drug injectors in Serbia, Social Science & Medicine 66 (6) 1437-1447.
Rhodes, Tim, Ana Prodanovic, Bojan Žikić, Elena Kuneski, Tijana Pavićević, Davor Karadžić and Sarah Bernays. 2008b. Trust, disruption and responsibility in accounts of injecting equipment sharing and hepatitis C risk. Health, Risk & Society 10 (3): 221–240.
Romero-Daza, Nancy, Margaret Weeks, and Merrill Singer. 2003. “Nobody Gives a Damn if I Live or Die”: Violence, Drugs, and Street-Level Prostitution in Inner-City Hartford, Connecticut. Medical Anthropology 22 (3): 233–259.
Sarang, Anya, Tim Rhodes, Nicolas Sheon, and Kimberly Page. 2010. Policing Drug Users in Russia: Risk, Fear, and Structural Violence, Substance Use and Misuse. 45 (6): 813–864.
Sawchuk, Lawrence A. 2009 Rethinking the Impact of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic on Sex Differentials in Mortality. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 139 (4): 584–590.
Shaw, Susan, Merrill Singer. 2003. Communities in conflict: the struggle for AIDS prevention. Practicing Anthropology 25 (3): 12–15.
Singer, Merrill. 1994. AIDS and the health crisis of the U.S. urban poor; The perspective of critical medical anthropology. Social Science & Medicine 39 (7): 931–948.
Singer, Merrill. 1996. A Dose of Drugs, a Touch of Violence, a Case of AIDS: Conceptualizing the SAVA Syndemic. Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology 24 (2): 99-110.
Singer, Merrill. 2006. Editorial: Research-Informed Policy: Our Most Critical Unresolved Issue in AIDS. Substance Use & Misuse, 41:831–832.
Singer, Merrill. 2008. The Perfect Epidemiological Storm Food Insecurity, HIV/AIDS and Poverty in Southern Africa. Anthropology News • October, 12, 15.
Singer, Merrill. 2009. Introduction to Syndemics: A Critical Systems Approach to Public and Community Health. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
Singer, Merrill. 2010. Pathogen–pathogen interaction: A syndemic model of complex biosocial processes in disease. Virulence 1 (1): 10–18.
Singer, Merrill, Charlene Snipes. 1992. Generations of suffering: experiences of a treatment program for substance abuse during pregnancy. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 3 (l): 222-234.
Singer, Merrill, Tom Stopka. Cara Siano, Kristen Springer, George Barton, Kaveh Khoshnood, April Gorry de Puga, and Robert Heimer. 2000. The Social Geography of AIDS and Hepatitis Risk: Qualitative Approaches for Assessing Local Differences in Sterile-Syringe Access among Injection Drug Users. American Journal of Public Health 90 (7): 1049- 1056.
Singer, Merrill, Janie Simmons, Michael Duke and Lorie Broomhall. 2001. The Challenges of Street Research on Drug Use, Violence, and AIDS Risk. Addiction Research & Theory 9 (4): 365-402.
Singer, Merrill, Scott Clair. 2003. Syndemics and public health: reconceptualizing disease in bio-social context. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 17 (4): 423-41.
Merrill C. Singer, Pamela I. Erickson, Louise Badiane, Rosemary Diaz, Dugeidy Ortiz, Traci Abraham, Anna Marie Nicolaysen. 2006. Syndemics, sex and the city: Understanding sexually transmitted diseases in social and cultural context. Social Science & Medicine 63 (8): 2010–2021.
Singer, Merrill, D. Ann Herring, Judith Littleton, and Melanie Rock. 2011. “Syndemics in Global Health”. In A Companion to Medical Anthropology, eds. Merrill Singer and Pamela I. Erickson, 159-179. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
Xia, Xian, Jun Luo, Jianling Bai, Rongbin Yu. 2008. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection among injection drug users in China: systematic review and meta-analysis. Public Health 122 (10): 990–1003.
Žikić, Bojan. 2006. Antropologija AIDS-a. Rizično ponašanje intravenskih korisnika droge. Beograd: Filozofski fakultet i Srpski genealoški centar.
Žikić, Bojan. 2008. Rizik i nasilјe. Antropološko proučavanje seksualnog rada u Beogradu. Beograd: Srpski genealoški centar i Odelјenje za etnologiju i antropologiju Filozofskog fakulteta.
Žikić, Bojan. 2011. Društveni činioci zdravstvene vulnerabilnosti marginalizovanih društvenih grupa. Etnoantropološki problemi 6 (3): 783-805.
Published
2016-02-27
How to Cite
Žikić, B. (2016). Intravenous Drug Use in Belgrade as a Syndemic Environment. Issues in Ethnology and Anthropology, 8(4), 927-963. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.21301/eap.v8i4.2

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>