Evidence on Animals in the Middle Ages in the Framework of Culture-Historical Paradigm

  • Monika Milosavljević Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade
Keywords:
epistemology, human-animal relations, Mediaeval archaeological record, culture-historical paradigm, paganism, ritual, funerary practice

Abstract

The paper investigates the relationship between archaeological paradigm, fieldwork practice and archaeological records generated in Serbia after the World War II. The issue is the need to revalorize “old” archaeological records in the context of the current theoretical changes and of adaptation of the existing evidence to new research perspectives. These general issues are discussed on the example of culture-historical or traditional approach in Medieval archaeology in the Serbian context. From the point of view of postprocessual archaeology, the paradigmatic position entirely determines the evidence generated during excavations. Consequently, it may be expected that the excavations conducted under the culture-historical school of thought may only answer the questions posed from the culture-historical viewpoint. Therefore, the limitations are great of reinterpretation of the evidence generated in the culture-historical framework. Additionally, the problems of reinterpretation are raised by inaccessibility or non-existence of complete field documentation or unsatisfactory archiving. In other words, the data at our disposal are far removed from the complexity of archaeological record necessary for new insights and a better understanding of the past. The problem is further influenced by the specific character of archaeological knowledge and the issue of non-replicability that differs archaeology from other experimentally grounded research areas. Consequently, a string of problems raises in the process of reinterpretation of the “old” evidence, but it can still be treated as useful in interpretation, provided that it is adequately contextualized. The key points of the changed approach to archaeological research today may be defined as the overcoming of the notion of paradigm and the dualistic mode of thinking, with an emphasized importance of post-humanist philosophy and new materialism. One of the aspects of the post-humanist approach is the consideration of animals in archaeological record as companions to people of the past. This case-study considers specific issues of human-animal relations and “animal turn” on the grounds of the archaeological records interpreted as Mediaeval in the framework of the culture-historical paradigm. The new positioning of the “old” evidence stems from the theoretical tendencies linked to the “ontological turn” in social anthropology and archaeology, and the social epistemology of L. Fleck.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Monika Milosavljević, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade
Department of Archaeology

References

Andersson Cederholm, Erika, Amelie Björck, Kristina Jennbert and Ann-Sofie Lönngren. (eds). 2014. Exploring the Animal Turn, Human-Animal Relations in Science, Society and Culture. Lund: Lund University.

Babić, Staša i Miodrag Tomović. 1996. Milutin Garašanin. Razgovori o arheologiji. Beograd: 3T.

Babić, Staša, Vera Vasiljević and Risto Drašković. 2014. „Reforma nastavnog plana na Odeljenju za arheologiju Filozofskog fakulteta u Beogradu“. U Radovi sa konferencije i radionica projekta BIHERIT, uredili Predrag Novaković, Ivana Pandžić i Zrinka Mileusnić, 31–36. Ljubljana: Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete.

Babić, Staša.2018. Metaarheologija. Ogled o uslovima znanja o prošlosti. Beograd: Clio.

Babić, Staša. 2015. „Arheologija na Univerzitetu u Srbiji između zahteva struke i društva“. Arhaika 3: 1–14.

Bajalović-Birtašević, Marija. 1960. Srednjovekovna nekropola u Mirijevu. Beograd: Muzej grada Beograda.

Bartosiewicz, László, Zsofia Kovács and Balázs Farkas. 2013. „Pass the Skeleton Key… Animals in an Early Copper Age Inhumation Burial from Pusztataskony–Ledence I, Hungary“. In Uncomformist Archaeology: papers in Honour of Paolo Biagi. BAR International Series 2528, edited by Elisabetta Starnini, 77–88. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 2014. Znanost o znanosti i refleksivnost. Zagreb: Jesenski i Turk – Hrvatsko sociološko društvo.

Bugarski, Ivan. 2009. Nekropole iz doba antike i ranog srednjeg veka na lokalitetu Čik. Beograd: Arheološki institut.

Bugarski, Ivan. 2014. „Arheologija Avara u Srbiji“. Doktorska dis. Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Beogradu.

Chapman, Robert and Alison Wylie. 2016. Evidential Reasoning in Archaeology (Debates in Archaeology). London: Bloomsbury.

Cohen, Esther. 1994. „Animals in Medieval Perceptions. The image of the ubiquitous other“. In Animals and Human Society: Changing Perspectives, edited by Aubrey Manning, 59–80. New York: Routledge.

Čajkanović, Veselin. 2003. Srpska stara religija i mitologija. Niš: Prosveta.

DeMello, Margo (ed). 2016. Mourning Animals. Rituals and Practices Surrounding Animal Death. Michigan: Michigan State University Press.

Dimitrijević, Vesna. 2017. „Zaštita bioarheološkog materijala u Srbiji“. U Srpska arheologija između teorije i činjenica V: Arheologija između artefakata i ekofakata, knjiga apstrakata. uredila Milena Gošić, 16–18. Beograd: Filozofski fakultet u Beogradu.

Garašanin, Milutin i Jovan Kovačević. 1950. Pregled materijalne kulture Južnih Slovena u ranom srednjem veku. Beograd: Prosveta.

Garašanin, Milutin. 1950. „Ka najstarijim sloveskim kulturama naše zemlje i problemu porekla izvesnih njihovih oblika“. Starinar n. s. I: 27–37.

Garašanina, Milutin, Miloje Vasić i Gordana Marjanović-Vujović. 1984. „Trajanov most–Castrum Pontes. Izveštaj o arheološkim istraživanjima u 1980. godini“. Đerdapske sveske II: 25–84.

Gräslun, Anne-Sofie. 2004. „Dogs in graves – a question of symbolism“. In PECUS: Man and Animal in Antiquity. Proceeedings of the Conference at the Swedish Institute in Rome, September 9-12, 2002, edited by Barbro Santillo Frizell, 167–176. Rome: The Swedish Institute in Rome.

Harris, Oliver and Craig Cipolla. 2017. Archaeological Theory in the New Millennium. Introducing Current Perspectives. London: Routledge.

Hastrup, Kirsten. 2004. „Getting It Right. Knowledge and evidence in Anthropology“. Anthropological Theory 4 (4): 455–472. https://doi.org/10.1177/1463499604047921

Heinrich, Härke. 2014. „Grave goods in early medieval burials: messages and meanings“. Mortality 19 (1): 41–60. https://doi.org/10.1080/13576275.2013.870544

Heking, Ijan. 2012. Društvena konstrukcija ali čega? Novi Sad: Mediterran Publishing.

Hill, Erica. 2013. „Archaeology and Animal Persons: Towards a Prehistory of Human-Animal Relations“. Environment and Society: Advances in Research 4: 117–136. https://doi.org/10.3167/ares.2013.040108

Ilijić, Bojana. 2015. Timacum Minus – dva sveta. Knjaževac: Zavičajni muzej Knjaževac.

Inskip, Sarah, G. Michael Taylor, Sue Anderson and Graham Stewart. 2017. „Leprosy in pre-Norman Suffolk, UK: biomolecular and geochemical analysis of the woman from Hoxne“. Journal of Medical Microbiology 66: 1640–1649. https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000606

Jovanović, Bojan. 2008. „Čajkanovićev put od antičke i narodne književnosti do srpske religije i mitologije“. Glasnik etnološkog instituta SANU LVI (1): 37–51.

Jovanović, Vojislav. 1974. „Slovenske nekropole u Srbiji, Makedoniji i Bugarskoj“. Doktorska dis. Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Beogradu.

Korošec, Josip. 1952. Prikaz članka Iskopavanja na Orašju. Prethodni izveštaj o radu u 1947. godini Đorđe Mano-Zisi, Rastislav Marić i Milutin Garašanin. Arheološki vestnik III (1): 161–163.

Kostić, Sofija. 1996. Zmija u običajima i verovanjima kod Srba. Doktorska dis. Filozofski fakultet: Univerzitet u Beogradu.

Kovačević, Jovan. 1953. Srednjovekovna nošnja balkanskih Slovena: studija iz istorije srednjovekovne kulture Balkana. Beograd: Naučna knjiga.

Kovačević, Jovan. 1977. Avarski kaganat. Beograd: Srpska književna zadruga.

Lazić, Milorad. 1989. „Fisiolog u vizantijskoj i srpskoj srednjovekovnoj književnosti“. U Fisiolog-Srednjovekovni medicinski spisi (izbor), uredili Dimitrije Bogdanović, Milorad Pavić, Milorad Đurić i Milisav Savić, 9–28. Beograd: Prosveta.

Leifsson, Rúnar. 2018. Ritual Animal Killing and Burial Customs in Viking Age Iceland. Doctoral dis. University of Iceland.

Levi-Stros, Klod. 1979. Totemizam danas. Beograd: Beogradski izdavački-grafički zavod.

Levin, Iv. 2006. Seksualnost i društvo kod pravoslavnih Slovena od X do XVIII veka. Loznica: Karpos.
Loma, Aleksandar. 2006. „Veselin Čajkanović – sudbina čoveka i njegovog dela“. U Veselin Čajkanović: 1881–1946, katalog izložbe, uredila Marija Vranić-Ignjačević, 7‒9. Beograd: Univerzitetska biblioteka „Svetozar Marković“.

Lucas, Gavin. 2012. Understanding the Archaeological Record. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Maksimović, Ljubomir. 1996. „Pokrštavanje Srba i Hrvata“. Zbornik radova Vizantološkog instituta XXXV: 155–174.

Mano-Zisi, Djordje, Rastislav Marić i Milutin Garašanin. 1950. „Iskopavanja na Orašju. Prethodni izveštaj o radu u 1947. godini“. Starinar n. s. knjiga 1: 143–164.

Marjanović-Vujović, Gordana. 1990. „Rural settlements in the 9th and 10th centuries in the Danube valley in Serbia“. In From the Baltic to the Black Sea. Studies in Medieval Archaeology, edited by David Austin and Leslie Alcock, 236–250. London: Cambridge University Press.

Marković, Nenad. 2013. „Skelet konja iz konjaničkog groba sa nekropole Ušće kod Obrenovca“. Zbornik Narodnog muzeja (arheologija) XXI (1): 276–290.

Marković, Nenad. 2018. „Arheozoologija istorijskih perioda: razvoj discipline u Arheološkom institutu“. U Arheologija u Srbiji, projekti Arheološkog instituta u 2016. godini, uredili Ivan Bugarski, Nadežda Gavrilović-Vitas i Vojislav Filipović, 141–147. Beograd: Arheološki institut.

Marković, Nemanja i Milica Radišić. 2016. „Životinje u pogrebnom ritualu na nekropoli Batajnica-Velika humka“. U Batajnica-Velika humka: Ranomađarska nekropola, uredili Perica Špehar i Nika Strugar Bevc, 192–206. Beograd: Muzej grada Beograda.

Milosavljević, Monika. 2015. „Koncept drugosti varvarstva i varvarizacije u srpskoj arheologiji“. Doktorska dis. Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Beogradu.

Milosavljević, Monika. 2016. „Ludwik Fleck’s concepts slicing through the Gordian Knot of Serbian Archaeology“. Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science 1: 88–100.

Milosavljević, Monika. (u štampi). „Always Angular and Never Straight: Medieval Snakes in Human Graves?“. In Animals on the Move in the Middle Ages, edited by László Bartosiewicz.

Morey, Darcy. 2010. Dogs. Domestication and the development of social bond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Morris, James. 2011. Investigating Animal Burials. Ritual, mundane and beyond. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Morris, James. 2012. „Animal ‘ritual’ killing from remains to meanings“. In The Ritual killing and burial of animals: European perspectives, edited by Aleksander Pluskowski, 8–21. Oxford: Oxbow.

Morris, James. 2016. „Mourning the Sacrafice. Behavior and Meaning behind Animal burials“. In Mourning Animals. Rituals and Practices Surrounding Animal Death, edited by Margo DeMello, 11–20. Michigan: Michigan University Press.

Nichols, Christoper. 2018. „Hounds of Hel. An osteological investigation of dog skeleton in Vendel Period-Viking Age inhumations at Valsgärde cemetery“. Master thesis. Uppsala Universitet.

Novaković, Predrag. 2015. Historija arheologije u novim zemljama Jugoistočne Evrope. Sarajevo: Univerzitet u Sarajevu.

O’Connor, Terry. 2007. „Thinking about Beastly Bodies“. In Breaking and Shaping Beastly Bodies. Animals as Material Culture in the Middle Ages, edited by Aleksander Pluskowski, 1–10. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Olsen, Bjørnar. 2002. Od predmeta do teksta. Teorijske perspektive arheoloških istraživanja. Beograd: Geopoetika.

Petković, Sofija i Nataša Miladinović-Radmilović. 2013. „Neki primeri pogrebnog kulta na kasnoantičkoj nekropoli u Ravni (Timacum Minus) kod Knjaževca“. Etno-kulturološki zbornik za proučavanje istočne Srbije i susednih oblasti XVII: 47–60.

Petković, Sofija, Bojana Ilijić i Nikola Radinović. 2014. „Nekropola Slog – Timacum Minus u Ravni kod Knjaževca“. U Zaštitna arheološka iskopavanja 2013. godine. Arheologija u Srbiji, projekti Arheološkog instituta u 2013. godini, uredila Dragana Antonović, 76–81. Beograd: Arheološki institut.

Petković, Sofija, Dragica Bizjak and Jelena Bulatović. (u štampi). „Early Medieval Burial of Woman and Fox at the Necropolis Slog in Ravna (Timacum Minus) in Eastern Serbia“. In Homines, Funera, Astra. Alba Iulia: „1 Decembrie 1918” Universite, Alba Iulia.

Petković, Sofija, Jelena Bulatović i Dragica Bizjak. 2015. „Jedna zanimljiva sahrana sa nekropole Slog u Ravni“. U XXXVIII skupština i godišnji skup Srpskog arheološkog društva (Pirot, 4–6. jun 2015. godine), Knjiga apstrakata, uredili Vojislav Filipović and Dragana Antonović, 89–90. Pirot: Srpsko arheološko društvo.

Petković, Sofija, Mira Ružić, Svetozar Jovanović, Marko Vuksan and Zsuzsanna Zoffmann. 2005. Roman and Medieval Necropolis in Ravna near Knjaževac. Beograd: Arheološki institut.

Petković, Sofija, Nadežda Gavrilović-Vitas, Nataša Miladinović-Radmilović i Bojana Ilijić. 2016. Pogrebni ritual i Dionisov kult u Ravni (Timacum Minus). Beograd: Arheološki institut.

Pluskowski, Aleksander. 2007. „Communicating Through Skin and Bone: Appropriating Animal Bodies in Medieval Western European Seigneurial Culture“. In Breaking and Shaping Beastly Bodies. Animals as Material Culture in the Middle Ages, edited by Aleksander Pluskowski, 32–51. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Pluskowski, Aleksander. 2012. „Introduction: The Ritual Killing and Burial of Animals in the Past“. In The Ritual Killing and Burial of Animals. European Perspectives, edited by Aleksander Pluskowski, 1–7. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Prummel, Wietske. 1992. „Early Medieval Dog Burials among the Germanic tribes“. Hellinium XXXII (1-2): 132–194.

Radičević, Dejan. 2004. Groblja VII-XV stoleća uz desnu obalu Dunava između ušća Velike Morave i ušća Timoka. Magistarska teza. Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Beogradu.

Reitz, Elizabeth and Elizabeth Wing. 2008. Zooarchaeology (Second edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ritvo, Harriet. 2007. „On the animal turn“. Daedalus 136 (4): 121. https://doi.org/10.1162/daed.2007.136.4.118

Sikimić, Vlasta. 2019. Optimization of scientific reasoning: a data-driven approach. Doctoral Dis. Faculty of Philosophy: University of Belgrade.

Simić, Marina. 2018. „(Not) turning in the Widening Gyre: The (im)possibility of the ontological turn in Eastern Europe“. Anthropological Notebooks XXIV (2): 61–73.

Simić, Zoran, Marko Janković i Vladimir Mihajlović. 2012. „Kasnoantička nekropola u selu Ušću kod Obrenovca“. Glasnik Srpskog arheološkog društva 28: 179–200.

Spasić, Ivana. 2007. „Bruno Latur, akteri-mreže i kritika kritičke sociologije“. Filozofija i društvo 33: 43–73.

Stinear, Timothy and Roland Brosch. 2016. „Leprosy in red squirrels“. Science 354 (6313): 702–703. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aal0145

Stoczkowski, Wiktor. 2018. „Bruno Latour, czyli teoria miłości-sieci. Szkic z antropologii nauki“. Prace Kulturoznawcze 22 (1-2): 45–67.

Špehar, Perica. 2017. Centralni Balkan od 7. do 11. veka. Arheološka svedočanstva. Beograd: IP BOOKA.

Špehar, Perica i Nika Strugar-Bevc. 2016. Batajnica – Velika humka. Ranomađarska nekropola. Beograd: Muzej grada Beograda.

Taylor, Anna Lisa. 2018. „Where are the wild things? Animals in western medieval European History“. History Compass 16 (3). https://doi.org/10.1111/hic3.12443

Trigger, Bruce. 2008. A History of Archaeological Thought (Second Edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tomović, Ljiljana and Dmitar Lakušić. 2015. „Habitat of Reptiles in Serbia“. In Red Book of Fauna of Serbia II – Reptiles, edited by Ljiljana Tomović, Miloš Kalezić and Georg Džukić, 49–63. Belgrade: Institute for Nature Conservation of Serbia.

Todd, Josie, Joshua Amiel and Richard Wassersug. (2009) „Factors influencing the emergence of northern populations of Eastern Ribbon Snakes (Thamnophis sauritus) from artificial hibernacula“. Canadian Journal of Zoology 87 (12): 1221–1226. https://doi.org/10.1139/Z09-114

Walker-Meikle, Kathleen. 2012. Animal Pets. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press.

Webster, Gary. 2009. „Culture History: A Culture-Historical Approach“ In Handbook of Archaeological Theories, edited by Alexander Bentley, Herbert Mascner, and Christopher Chippindale, 11–27. Lanham: Altamira Press.

Žakula, Sonja i Ivana Živaljević. 2019. „Izučavanje ljudsko-životinjskih odnosa u antropologiji i arheologiji II“. Glasnik Etnografskog insituta SANU LXVII (1): 153–172.

Žakula, Sonja. 2017. „Zoološki vrtovi u Srbiji u antropološkoj perspektivi“. Doktorska dis. Filozofski fakultet, Univerzitet u Beogradu.

Živaljević, Ivana. 2013. „Životinje između Prirode i Kulture: priča o arheozoologiji“. Etnoantropološki problemi 8 (4): 1137–1163. https://doi.org/10.21301/eap.v8i4.12
Published
2019-11-01
How to Cite
Milosavljević, Monika. 2019. “Evidence on Animals in the Middle Ages in the Framework of Culture-Historical Paradigm”. Issues in Ethnology and Anthropology 14 (3), 833–859. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.21301/eap.v14i3.5.