Niko Županić and the Construction of the Yugoslav Ethnogenesis

  • Monika Milosavljević Department of Archaeology Faculty of Philosophy University of Belgrade
Keywords:
Niko Županić, ethnogenesis, First World War, instrumentalization of science, transfer of knowledge

Abstract

The paper considers the role of Niko Županić in the processes of translation of the anthropological and archaeological knowledges into the language of the political activism during the First World War and immediately after. As recorded by Sima Trojanović, Županić was employed at the Ethnographic Museum in Belgrade in May 1914, as "anthropological clerk" with the duty to "first of all measure the Serbian people, and only after that the foreigners on the Balkan Peninsula". He was officially stationed here up to 1922, although he spent the war years out of the country, involved in political activism, along with other Serbian and Yugoslav intellectuals, with the aim of creating the state of the Yugoslavs. At the outbreak of the First World War, Županić spent the first three months as a volunteer in Niš, and was then sent to Rome and London, where he took part in the activities of the Yugoslav Board. During 1916 the Serbian Government sent him to the United States, to secure the support of the American Slovenes for the Yugoslav idea. From 1915 till the end of the war, he wrote studies on the South Slavic past and political announcements, drew the borders of the desired territories, held speeches on the unity of the Serbs, Slovenes, and Croats. His book Ethnogenesis of the Yugoslavs (1920), written during the war and at first aimed at the English-speaking audience, richly illustrates the ways in which all these activities intertwined. Here Županić stresses the "creative potency of the blood and racial source" of brachycefaly of the Illyrian natives observed in the case of the Yugoslavs. The critical analysis and contextualization of this volume makes possible the new insights into the concepts of identity in the history of the Serbian anthropology and archaeology. This study did not receive much attention in the archaeological circles, but its ideas have subsequently, selectively and indirectly become the part of the history of the Serbian archaeology.

References

Babić, Staša. 2008. Grci i drugi. Antička percepcija i percepcija antike. Beograd: Clio.
Babić, Staša. 2010. Arheologija i etnicitet. Етноантрополошки проблеми 5 (1): 137–149.
Babić, Staša. 2011. Close-reading the Praehistory of the Yugoslav Lands, 17th Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, 14–18. 09. 2011, Oslo, Norway, ed. Egil Mikkelsen, 188-189.
Babić, Staša i Miodrag Tomović. 1996. Milutin Garašanin. Razgovori o arheologiji. Beograd: 3T.
Bandović, Aleksandar. 2012. Gustaf Kosina i koncept kulture u arheologiji. Etnoantropološki problemi 7 (3): 629–648.
Barthes, Roland. 2009. Mitologije. Zagreb: Naklada Pelago.
Bižić-Omčikus, Vesna. 2006. Niko Županič u Etnografskom muzeju u Beogradu. Glasnik Etnografskog muzeja u Beogradu 70: 155–165.
Bowlus, R. Charles. 2002. „Ethnogenesis: The Tyranny of a Concept “. In On Barbarian Identity – Critical Approaches to Ethnicity in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Andrew Gillett, 241-256. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers.
Brather, Sebastian. 2002 „Ethnic Identities as Constructions of Archaeology: The Case of Alamanni“. In On Barbarian Identity – Critical Approaches to Ethnicity in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Andrew Gillett, 149-175. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers.
Brather, Sebastian. 2008. „Virchow and Kossinna. From the Science-Based Anthropology of Humankind to the Culture-Historical Archaeology of Peoples“. In Archives, Ancestors, Practices. Archaeology in the Light of Its History, eds. Nathan Schlanger and Jord Nordbladh, 317–334. New York: Berghahn Books.
Bunzl, Matti and Glenn H. Penny. 2006. „Introduction: Rethinking German Anthropology, Colonialism, and Race“. In Worldly Provincialism: German Anthropology in the Age of Empire, eds. Glenn Penny and Matti Bunzl, 1–30. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Cohen, Robert S. and Thomas Schnelle (eds). 1986. Cognition and Fact, Materials on Ludwik Fleck (Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 87). Dordrecht: Springer.
Curta, Florin. 2002. „From Kossinna to Bromley: Ethnogenesis in Slavic Archaeology“. In On Barbarian Identity – Critical Approaches to Ethnicity in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Andrew Gillett, 201-218. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers.
Ćirković, Sima. 1995. „Srednjovekovno razdoblje u tzv. etnogenezi balkanskih naroda“. U Etnogeneza Hrvata, ur. Neven Budak, 28-39. Zagreb: Nakladni zavod Matice Hrvatske.
Díaz-Andreu, Margarita, Sam Lucy, Staša Babić and David N. Edwards. 2005. The Archaeology of Identity. London: Routledge.
Dušković, Vesna. 2006. „Beogradske godine“ Nika Županiča. Glasnik Etnografskog muzeja u Beogradu 70: 141–154.
Dvorniković, Vladimir. 2000 [1939] . Karakterologija Jugoslovena. Beograd: Prosveta.
Džino, Danijel. 2011. Indigene zajednice zapadnog i središnjeg Balkanskog poluotoka i 21. stoljeće: metodski problem. Godišnjak JAHRBUCH 40: 197-206.
Garašanin, Milutin i Jovan Kovačević. 1950. Pregled materijalne kulture Južnih Slovena. Beograd: Prosveta.
Evans, Andrew D. 2008. Race Made Visible: The Transformation of Museum Exhibits in Early-Twentieth-Century German Anthropology. German Studies Review 31 (1): 87–108.
Evans, Andrew D. 2010. Anthropology at War: World War I and the Science of Race in Germany. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Fetten, Frank. 2002. „Archaeology and anthropology in German before 1945“. In Archaeology, Ideology and Society. The German Experience, ed. Heinrich Härke, 143–182. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Fleck, Ludwik. 1981 [1935]. Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gillett, Andrew. 2002. „Introduction: Ethnicity, History, and Methodology“. In On Barbarian Identity – Critical Approaches to Ethnicity in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Andrew Gillett, 1-18. Turnhout: Brepols Publishers.
Gingrich, Andre. 2005. „The German-Speaking Countries. Reptures, Schools, and Nontraditions: Reassessing the History of Sociocultural Anthropology in Germany“. In One Discipline, Four Ways: British, German, French, and American Anthropology, eds. Chris Hann, 59-153. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Gingrich, Andre. 2010. „After the Great War: National Reconfiguration of Anthropology in Late Colonial Times“. In Doing Anthropology in Wartime and War Zones. World War I and the Cultural Sciences in Europe, eds. Reinhard Johler, Christian Marchetti and Monique Scheer, 355–378. Bielefeld: Transcript-Verlag.
Gould, Jay Stephen. 2003. Čovjek po meri, kvocijent inteligencije i druge zablude. Zagreb: Naklada Jasenski i Turk.
Grafenauer, Bogo. 1951. O arheologiji in zgodovini. Zgodovinski časopis 5: 163-173.
Insoll, Timothy. 2007. The Archaeology of Identities: A Reader. London: Routledge.
Jezernik, Božidar. 2009. „Antropolog, ki je ljudem meril glave“. U Niko Zupanič, njegovo delo, čas in prostor, ur. Rajko Muršič in Mihaela Hudelja, 23–74. Ljubljana: Filozofska fakulteta.
Jones, Siân. 1997. The archaeology of ethnicity: Constructing identities in the past and present. London: Routledge.
Korošec, Josip. 1950. Prvo posvetovanje Jugoslovanskih arheologov. Zgodovinski časopis 4: 212-218.
Korošec, Josip. 1952. Uvod v materijalno kulturo slovanov zgodnjeg srednjeg veka knjiga. Ljubljana: Državna založba Slovenije.
Kovačević, Ivan. 2001. Istorija srpske etnologije II. Pravci i odlomci. Beograd: Srpski geneaološki centar.
Kuzmanović, Zorica. 2012. Uticaj lingvistike na formiranje kulturno-istorijskog pristupa u arheologiji. Etnoantropološki problemi 7 (3): 615–628.
Marković, Slobodan. 2008. Književno-publicistički rad Čedomilјa Mijatovića u Britaniji. U Uspomene Balkanskog diplomate, pr. Slobodan G. Marković, 316-336. Beograd: Radio-televizija Beograd.
Massin, Benoit. 1996. „From Virchow to Fischer: Physical Anthropology and ’Modern Race Theories‘ in Wilhelmine Germany“. In Volksgeist as Method and Ethic: Essays on the Boasian Ethnography and the German Anthropological Tradition, ed. George W. Stocking, Jr., 79–154. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Mihajlović, D. Vladimir. Genius loci Balkani: recepcija prošlosti i konstruisanje akademskog narativa o balkanskom nasleđu. Etnoantropološki problemi 8 (2): xxx–xxx.
Mijatović, Čeda. 1920. Uvod u Etnogenea Jugoslovena, ur. Niko Županić, 1-3. Zagreb: JAZU.
Mikić, Živko. 1998. O interdisciplinarnosti u srpskoj arheologiji sa posebnim osvrtom na fizičku antropologiju. Glasnik SAD 14: 263–269.
Milosavljević, Monika. 2012. Niko Županić i istorijska antropologija balkanskih naroda. Etnoantropološki problemi 7 (3): 681–708.
Mitić, Milan. 1907. Preistorijski zlatan nakit iz Velike Vrbice. Starinar n. r. II: 99–114.
Mitić, Milan. 1908. Askosi iz Vinče. Starinar n. r. III: 185–188.
Mihajlović, Vladimir V. 2011. Kanonski lepo – estetski kriterijumi i geneza rasizma. Etnoantropološki problemi 6 (3): 625–640.
Mos, Džordž L. 2005. Istorija rasizma u Evropi. Beograd: Službeni glasnik.
Murščič, Rajko. 2009. „V senci prednikov: Prezrta zapuščina Nika Zupaniča”. U Niko Zupanič, njegovo delo, čas in prostor, ur. Rajko Muršič in Mihaela Hudelja, 135–142. Ljubljana: Filozofska fakulteta.
Nemeth, Krešimir. 1953. Zgodovinski časopis II-V, 1948-51. Historijski zbornik VI: 95-100.
Novaković, Predrag. 2002. „Archaeology in five states-A peculiariaty or just another story at the crossroads of Mitteleuropa and the Balkans: A case study of Slovene archaeology“. In Archäologien Europas: Geschichte, Methoden und Theorien/Archeologies of Europe: History, Methods and Theories, eds. Peter F. Biehl, Alexander Gramsch and Arkadiusz Marciniak, 323–352. Tübinger Archäologische Taschenbücher 3. Münster: Waxmann.
Novaković, Predrag. 2009. „Arheološke vsebine v opusu Nika Zupaniča”. U Niko Zupanič, njegovo delo, čas in prostor, ur. Rajko Muršič in Mihaela Hudelja, 153–162. Ljubljana: Filozofska fakulteta.
Novaković, Predrag. 2011. „Archaeology in the New Countries of Southeastern Europe: A Historical Perspective”. In Comparative Archaeologies: A Sociological View of the Science of the Past, ed. Ludomir R. Lozny, 339–461. New York: Springer.
Olsen, Bjønar. 2002. Od predmeta do teksta. Teorijske perspektive arheoloških istraživanja. Beograd: Geopoetika.
Palavestra, Aleksandar. 2011a. Kulturni konteksti arheologije. Beograd: Filozofski fakultet.
Palavestra, Aleksandar. 2011b. U službi kontinuiteta. Etno-arheologija u Srbiji. Etnoantropološki problemi 6 (3): 579–594.
Palavestra, Aleksandar. 2012. Vasić pre Vinče (1900-1908). Etnoantropološki problemi 7 (3): 649–679.
Pirc, Louis. 1916. Uvod k govoru Slovenija vstani! Ameriškim slovencem. Govor ki ga je imel pred slovenci v Clevelandu 28. aprila 1916, ur. Niko Zupanič, VII-XXIX. Cleveland Ohio: Tiskarna „Clevelandske Amerike“.
Pišev, Marko. 2010. Ko je ko u Kraljevini SHS: Formalna analiza Cvijićeve rasprave o jedinstvu južnih Slovena. Etnoantropološki problemi 5 (2): 55-79.
Promitzer, Christian. 2001. Niko Županič in vprašanje jugoslovanstva: med politiko i antropologijo (1901–1941). Prispevki za novejšo zgodovino XLI (1): 7–30.
Promitzer, Christian. 2009. „Antropolog in znanstveni rasizem – korespodenca Nika Zupaniča med dvema svetovnima vojnama”. U Niko Zupanič, njegovo delo, čas in prostor, ur. Rajko Muršič in Mihaela Hudelja, 103–114. Ljubljana: Filozofska fakulteta.
Promitzer, Christian. 2010. „’Betwixt and Between‘ Physical Anthropology in Bulgaria and Serbia until the End of the First World War“. In Doing Anthropology in Wartime and War Zones. World War I and the Cultural Sciences in Europe, eds. Reinhard Johler, Christian Marchetti and Monique Scheer, 141–166. Bielefeld: Transcript-Verlag.
Pruitt, C. Tera. 2011. Authority and the Production of Knowledge in Archaeology. PhD diss. University of Cambridge.
Ravničar, M. M. (pseudonim Milana Mitića). 1911. O jednoj desetogodišnjici. Beograd: Štamparija Đ. Munca, M. Karića i I. Begova.
Radić, Radivoj. 2005. Srbi pre Adama i posle njega. Istorija jedne zloupotrebe: Slovo protiv „novoromantičara“. Beograd: Stubovi kulture.
Scheer, Monique, Christian Marchetti and Reinhard Johler. 2010. „’A Time Like No Other‘: The Impact of the Great War on European Anthropology“. In Doing Anthropology in Wartime and War Zones. World War I and the Cultural Sciences in Europe, eds. Reinhard Johler, Christian Marchetti and Monique Scheer, 9–26. Bielefeld: Transcript-Verlag.
Škorić, Marko. 2010. Sociologija nauke. Mertonovski i konstruktivistički program. Sremski Karlovci: Izdavačka knjižarnica Zorana Stojanovića.
Trgovčević, Ljubinka. 1986. Naučnici Srbije i stvaranje jugoslovenske države. Beograd: Narodna knjiga.
Trigger, G. Bruce. 2006. A History of Archaeological Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Vasić, M. Miloje. 1914. Narodni muzej u 1913. Godini. Godišnjak SKA XXVII (1913): 263-283.
Vlahović, Petar. 2006. Etnogeneza balkanskih naroda u naučnom delu profesora Nika Županiča. Glasnik Etnografskog muzeja u Beogradu 70: 131–140.
Vurnik, Stanko. 1927. Niko Županić. Ob petindvajsetletnem jubileju njegovega znanstvenega in javnega delovanja. Etnolog – Glasnik Kraljevskeg etnografskeg muzeja v Ljubljani I: 144–158.
Zimmerman, Andrew. 2001. Anthropology and Antihumanism in Imperial Germany. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Zoupanitch, Niko. 1919. Ave Illyria. Paris: Société générale d′imprimerie et d′édition Levé
Županić, Niko. 1907. Sistem istorijske antropologije balkanskih naroda. Starinar n.r. II: 167–189.
Županić, Niko. 1907. Telesna metamorfoza narodov na našem jugu. Dom in svet 20 (12): 561-563.
Županić, Niko. 1908. Sistem istorijske antropologije balkanskih naroda. Starinar n.r. III: 1–70.
Županić, Niko. 1909. Misli o fizijoetnologiji. Prosvetni glasnik XXX: 144-161.
Županić, Niko. 1911. Trojanci i Arijevci: prilozi preistoriji i paleoetnologiji Male Azije, Egeje i Balkanskog poluostrva. Glas SKA 86: 167–291.
Županić, Niko. 1913. Pontijski Bugari. Prilog antropologiji Dobrudže. Prosvetni glasnik 34: 967–980.
Županić, Niko. 1920. Etnogeneza Jugoslovena. Zagreb: JAZU.
Županić, Niko. 1927. Destletnica smrti Milana Mitića. Etnolog 1: 158–159.
Županić, Niko. 1928. Podsekcija Jugoslovenske Etnografske sekcije na konferenci mira v Parizu 1919 za slovensko-nemško mejo, za Prekmurje in čehoslovaško-jugoslovenski koridor. Etnolog 2: 86-89.
Published
2016-02-27
How to Cite
Milosavljević, M. (2016). Niko Županić and the Construction of the Yugoslav Ethnogenesis. Issues in Ethnology and Anthropology, 8(3), 717-746. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.21301/eap.v8i3.5